Ion implantation is a technique which makes it possible to modify the surface of materials by injecting atoms into them at the desired depth, and in precise quantities. It is widely used for doping semiconductors in the manufacture of very large scale integrated circuits (VLSI). Being a strongly non-equilibrium phenomenon (the incident atoms typically have energies millions of times higher than that of the atoms of the material) the implantation often generates, at the atomic scale, new structures which can, depending on the case, be exploited to improve the performance of high-tech materials, or constitute a problem to be circumvented.
For example, during doping, the implantation generates defects in the semiconductors by displacing atoms of the crystal, which is harmful for the integrated circuits. If the number of defects is not too high, the damage can be corrected by thermal annealing and the dopant activated. However, if the defect density exceeds a certain threshold, permanent damage will appear in the material and may render the devices unusable.
Conversely, ion implantation generates defects that can be used to modify materials. Indeed, implantation makes it possible to create, near the surface, defects which can subsequently diffuse into the material and modify the composition of buried layers by interdiffusion. It is thus possible to change the emission wavelength of wells or quantum dots and the properties of magnetic layers.
Ion beams also make it possible to quantitatively and extremely sensitively measure the depth distribution of atoms in a material. We have several ion beam analysis techniques in our laboratories, in particular Elastic Recoil Detection (ERD), a technique invented in our laboratories in the 1970s, as well as Rutherford Retroscattering Spectrometry (RBS) analysis. , channeling (RBS channeling) and Resonant Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRRA).
My main research interests are currently:
Ph.D. in physics, University of Cambridge (1986)
B.Sc. in Physics, McGill University (1982)
My group works in the field of condensed matter theory. We are interested in systems with unusual properties often related to topological order or strong interactions.
More specifically, we study
Ph.D. (Pitt. 1987)
James McGill Professor of Physics
The theoretical research of my group focuses on two main areas: the theory and modeling of quantum electronic transport in nanoelectronics, and the physics of materials in nanotechnology. A qualitative understanding of our research program can be observed from the list of publications . Overall, our work is centered on the innovation of first-principle theoretical and computational methods.
In nanoelectronics, we develop theoretical formalisms and associated computational tools to calculate quantum transport properties. In particular, we are the first to have successfully developed the first-principles non-equilibrium quantum transport formalism where a self-consistent density functional type (DFT) field theory is realized in the non-equilibrium Green’s function formalism of Keldysh (NEGF). Here is the original NEGF-DFT article . You can find more information about the research we are doing on quantum transport by clicking on the following link .
In materials physics, a very interesting, extremely efficient and powerful new technique that we have developed is the real-space electronic structure method called RESCU, based on the Kohn-Sham DFT. So far, we have applied RESCU to solve problems with more than ten thousand atoms using only small computer clusters. This progress allows us to study realistic problems of materials physics, which was not possible before. The RESCU technical article is available here . You can find more information about our materials research by clicking on the following link .
Head of a theoretical and computational physics laboratory in the Department of Physics and the Institut Quantique of the Université de Sherbrooke. Our research lies at the crossroads of quantum matter and computational physics. We build and study models of quantum systems to discover and understand exciting phenomena. We also develop numerical methods to solve physics and interdisciplinary problems, particularly in relation to quantum information and artificial intelligence.
At the nanometer level, traditional boundaries between physics, chemistry, engineering and life sciences are disappearing. Physics, and in particular a background in scanning probe techniques, is an excellent foundation to contribute significantly to the emerging field of nanotechnology.
The Grutter Group is driven by exciting fundamental scientific questions. We invent, design, build and modify atomic force microscopes and related instruments. These tools are used to manipulate and study the structure-property relationship of nanoscale systems. We are the world leader in combining nanoscale spatial resolution with femtosecond temporal resolution. Our group is interested in translating our fundamental scientific discoveries into commercial applications and is open to fruitful industrial collaborations.
Delphine Bouilly completed her years of study at the University of Montreal in 2013 with a doctorate in physics. She then flew to New York to do a postdoctoral fellowship at Columbia University, in the laboratory of Colin Nuckolls. There, she developed expertise in the design of miniature electronic sensors, in particular for measuring mechanisms at the molecular level.
She joined the IRIC team in 2017 as Principal Investigator of the Design and Application of Electronic Nanobiosensors Research Unit.
NSERC-IBM Canada Industrial Research Chair in Microelectronic Encapsulation for Performance Scaling
Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Engineering,
Faculty of Engineering
Micro and nanofabrication, nanoelectronics, nanomaterials
Development of nanoelectronic device with low energy consumption (fabrication of Si / SiGe nanowire, carbon nanotube, thin silicon film and monoelectronic transistors), integration on CMOS of innovative function (gas/strain/humidity sensors, resistive memory metal oxide, low power circuit)
Associate Professor (Engineering Physics), started in January 2014
BEng Electrical Engineering (Honours), McGill University, Minor in Physics
PhD at Princeton University (and Visiting Researcher at University of Michigan) with Stephen R. Forrest
Postdoc and Junior Researcher at Imperial College London with Stefan A Maier (now @LMU) and Donald DC Bradley (now @KAUST)
I was fortunate to be born in Cape Breton, Nova Scotia. I did my B.Sc. Honors in Physics at St. Francis Xavier University working with Barry Wallbank on the scattering of electron molecules in intense light fields, then moved to Edmonton to do a Ph.D. in physics at the University of Alberta in the group of Frank Hegmann, studying dynamics of ultrafast carriers in semiconductor nanostructures. I then moved to Denmark as an HC Ørsteds postdoc in Peter Jepsen’s THz group at DTU, continuing as an assistant and then an associate professor. In 2011, I decided to come back to Canada to start the Ultrafast THz Photonics Laboratory in the McGill Physics Department. I am now a full associate professor and director of the Center for the Physics of Materials.
Semiconductors, Nanomaterials, Micro and Nanoelectronics, Optics and Photonics, Membranes
Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Physics
biosensors, laser diodes, photonic integration, nanofabrication, concentrated photovoltaics
Study and development of micro / nano-fabrication techniques applied to the field of micro-electronics and photonics: fabrication of integrated complex photonic components, 3D micro-fabrication technologies, telecom, biomedical application and very high efficiency photovoltaic components (CPV)
Nanomaterials, Robotics and Automation, Semiconductor, Solar and Wind Power, Surfaces, Interfaces and Thin Films
Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Mechanical Engineering
I study many aspects of semiconductor epitaxy, from tool technology to advanced processes and materials. My main fields of interest are photovoltaics, power electronics and photonics
Antonella Badia’s research focuses on the molecular assembly and characterization of ultra-thin organic layers, structured at the nanometric scale. These could serve as model biomembranes, matrices for the selective deposition of nanomaterials, or for the electrochemical actuation of micromechanical devices.
I am an expert in experiments to probe thermodynamic, magnetic, and transport properties in intense magnetic fields and at very low temperatures. My expertise includes the growth and characterization of advanced materials including quasi-crystals , strongly correlated insulators , and superconductors , and frustrated magnets .
Microwaves and Microwaves, Integrated Circuits, Personal Communications
Electrical Engineering and Electronic Engineering
Design, fabrication and characterization of micro-machined passive components. Characterization of concretes by microwave measurements. Design and development of MMIC. THz component.
Metals and alloys, superconductors, phase transitions
Understand microscopically the influence of a very strong spatial anisotropy on the establishment of long-range order, for states of broken symmetry of the antiferromagnetic, superconducting and structural type.
Optics and photonics, Imaging, Micro and nanoelectronics, Nanosystems
Biomedical Engineering and Biochemical Engineering, Electrical Engineering and Electronic Engineering
Design of biophotonic instruments for the measurement of properties of living tissues. Light-matter interactions at the nanometric scale
3D integration of microsystems and supra, instrumentation for radiation, large area cryogenic applications
Advanced micro and nanofabrication for the creation of new semiconductor and superconductor microsystems and components, photon counting microsystem by 3D integration, 3D integration of superconducting systems, integration and characterization of organically insulated TSVs in CMOS chips, 3D assembly process, interposer with advanced features, ultimate performance SPAD infrared imager project (<10ps), SIW type superconducting resonators, Josephson components by nanodamascene
Research of interests
Type(s) of expertise (NSERC topics)
The research activities of the Condensed Matter Physics Group relate to the study of the physical and technological properties of thin films, surfaces and interfaces in the fields of materials and processes for microelectronics and nanoelectronics, photonics and coatings. functional.
This research aims to fundamentally understand the physical systems offering significant potential for technological developments.
Relying on both a solid experimental and theoretical base, the researchers benefit, in particular through their membership of the Research Group in Physics and Technology of Thin Layers (GCM), from considerable resources.
The varied and complementary research topics include:
Two-dimensional electron gas transport properties in quantum microstructures (GaAs-AlGaAs, ZnO), and graphene
Micro and Nanoelectronics
Electrical Engineering and Electronic Engineering, Materials Engineering and Metallurgical Engineering
Microelectronics packaging, materials for interconnects and encapsulations
Semiconductor, Optics and Photonics, Surfaces, Interfaces and Thin Films, Sensors and Devices, Nanomaterials
Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Physics
Semiconductor surfaces and interfaces for the detection of electrically charged biomolecules in a liquid medium (viruses, bacteria, etc.); Laser technology for the treatment/functionalization of selective areas and the integration of nanophotonic devices.
Nanosystems, solids, superconductors, surfaces, interfaces and thin layers, phase transitions, ferromagnetism, magnetic refrigeration
Growth of oxides of technological interest in the form of thin layers (superconductors at high critical temperature, manganites and multiferroics), monocrystalline or polycrystalline, and the measurement of their magnetic and transport properties; manufacture of multilayers, junctions and simple electronic components exploiting the new properties emerging from proximity effects at the interfaces
I am a theorist interested in the quantum theory of condensed matter . My research interests are quite broad and are often driven by a desire to make connections between different topics. I enjoy working on problems where progress can be made analytically, as well as developing qualitative insights and predicting new effects that could be verified by experiments. I like to apply the methods of quantum field theory, which are essential for understanding the behavior of interacting electrons in solids.
My current research focuses on the theory of topological materials . They are insulators, semi-metals and superconductors whose electronic energy bands and wave functions are characterized by non-zero integers called topological invariants. Topological invariants manifest themselves physically by virtue of particular electronic states located at the boundaries of the sample. Besides being a remarkable feat of basic science, the advent of topological materials holds promise for practical applications in the form of low-decoherence quantum computers and low-dissipation spintronics devices.
Some key words describing my recent work on topological materials are: spintronics, electrical transport, Majorana zero modes and electron-phonon interactions. For more details, please see my posts. You can also check out the following videos, where I describe my research to understand the interaction between electronic band topology and phonons.
Dr. Patanjali Kambhampati is a Full Professor in the Department of Chemistry at McGill University and
an internationally recognized expert in energetic materials and ultrafast laser science. He was born in
India and emigrated to the United States when he was 4 years old. He was educated in St Paul, MN, and graduated from Carleton College
in 1992. He did his doctoral work at the University of Texas at Austin under Alan
Campion where he did science of surfaces under ultravacuum (1998). In his PDF in Texas with Paul Barbara, he
learned the method of ultrafast spectroscopy and applied these methods to quantum dynamics in liquids
(2001 – 2003). Following his PDF, he helped start a $40 million VC-backed fiber optic business in Los Angeles
(2001 – 2003)
He has generated close to $8M in research funds since his appointment at McGill in 2003. He has
published over 80 articles with over 7000 citations. He has hosted departmental conferences invited to
nearly 50 institutions including: MIT, Princeton, Columbia, Chicago, Northwestern. He has written nine
guest review papers on the state of the quantum dot field, one guest white paper on laser science,
and has had seven primary papers published in the media. Kambhampati was awarded the McGill
Fessenden University Chair as well as the Fessenden Prize (2012) for innovation from research to
commercialization activities, followed by the Wares Prize (2019). He received a Lady Davis Visiting
Professor at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem (2020). He received the John Polanyi Prize from
the Chemical Institute of Canada (2022) for his lifetime achievement in the field of physical chemistry.
Kambhampati owns four US patents. He has done R&D collaborations with several companies in
Europe and North America: Fastlite (France), NN-Labs (USA), QD Vision (USA), Axis Photonique (Canada),
some-cycle Inc. (Canada). One of his former students is an assistant professor equivalent at Fritz Haber
Institut (Berlin). Five of his former students switched to PDF in leading groups at ETH Zurich, Fritz Haber
Berlin, Toronto, MIT, Illinois. Since 2005 he has supervised an intellectually diverse range of students
from around the world, spanning chemistry and physics. 20 PhD students have joined the group to date,
with each of the first 13 graduating on schedule within five years.
Jolanta E. Klemberg-Sapieha is an associate professor at Polytechnique Montréal and principal collaborator of the NSERC Multisectoral Industrial Research Chair in Coatings and Surface Engineering in the Department of Engineering Physics.
She received her MS and PhD degrees in Chemical Engineering and Materials Engineering from the Technical University of Lodz, Poland. She joined Polytechnique in 1978. She is co-founder and currently director of the Laboratory of Optical and Tribo-Mechanical Metrology (LOTM), and Deputy Director of the Laboratory of Functional Coatings and Surface Engineering (LaRFIS).
JE Klemberg-Sapieha’s main research interests are the science and technology of thin films, surfaces, interfaces and coating systems. She has notably contributed to the field of hard and superhard protective coatings, tribological coatings, mechanical and tribo-corrosion properties of materials, coatings on plastics, and analysis of surfaces and interfaces, particularly for aerospace applications. , automotive, biomedical, optical and industrial manufacturing. His research has resulted in over 280 publications and 6 patents and discovery announcements.
Faculty of Arts and Sciences – Department of Geography
Local Science Complex B-2021
Faculty of Arts and Sciences – Department of Physics
Local Science Complex B-4029
Professor, Faculty of Engineering
FCC. Electrical and IT ENGINEERING
Integrated circuits, Micro and nanoelectronics, Microwaves and microwaves
Electrical Engineering and Electronic Engineering
HEMT, HBT, MMIC, III-V semiconductors, component physics
III-V semiconductor, component physics
English, Arabic, French
(2010). (Habilitation, Authorization to direct research). University of Lille I (Sci. & Tech.).
(1999). (PhD, Micro and integrated opto-electronics). University of Paris XI (Paris-Sud).
(1993). (Mastery without dissertation, Mastery).
Richard Martel holds a Canada Research Chair in Electrically Active Nanostructures and Interfaces and Full Professor in the Department of Chemistry at UdeM. He obtained a Ph.D. in surface science at Laval University in 1995 and carried out postdoctoral studies at IBM Research from 1995-1996. Until 2003, he held a research position at the IBM TJ Watson Research Center (Yorktown Heights, NY). Martel is interested in physico-chemical phenomena in carbon nanotubes and in the study of transport and charge transfer phenomena at the interfaces of nanostructures. For several years, he has been at the forefront of the international community interested in carbon nanotubes.
Michel Meunier is a Full Professor in the Physical Engineering Department and Head of the Plasmonics and Laser Processes Laboratory.
Within its walls, its team is busy creating new nanomaterials and biomedical tools for theranostics. The goal: to develop nanoparticles that can be used both for diagnosis (medical imaging and biosensors) and therapy (surgery, treatments).
A theoretical physicist, I am interested in all kinds of questions related to physics and science in general.
My work focuses on complex materials, proteins, as well as energy and natural resources and, since September 2016, I have been the Academic Director of the Trottier Energy Institute , based at Polytechnique Montréal.
During 2013, I had the honor of co-chairing the Commission on Quebec’s energy issues, whose report was published in early 2014.
I am also interested in popularizing and communicating science and I receive a researcher every week as part of my radio program La Grande Équation .
You want to know more ? Would you like me to participate in one of your activities? Feel free to explore this site or contact me directly .
Department of Physics, University of Sherbrooke
Bureau : D9-2017 Lab: D2-0046
Tel : (819) 821-8000 ext. 66476
Courriel : firstname.lastname@example.org
2009-present: Assistant Professor, McGill University
2008-2009: Postdoctoral fellow, Brown University
2006-2007: Postdoctoral researcher, Danish Technical University
2006: Ph.D. Physics, Princeton University
2000: BA Physics, Reed College
office: Rutherford 409
Research: Nanofluidics and biophysics.
Department of Physics, University of Montreal
Science Complex – B-4407
1375 Avenue Thérèse-Lavoie-Roux
Montreal (Quebec) H2V 0B3 CANADA
tel. (+1) 514 343 2076
email sjoerd.roorda at umontreal.ca
The Center for Physics of Materials (CPM), (RQMP),
and the Department of Physics,
3600, rue Université,
H3A 2T8, Canada
TELEPHONE: (514) 398-6534
FAX: (514) 398-8434
Phone: (514) 340-4711 Ext. 4858Fax: (514) 340-3218Room: C-512
Clara Santato is a full professor in the Department of Engineering Physics at Polytechnique Montréal. She obtained her doctorate in chemistry (“Preparation and Characterization of Nanostructured WO3 Films as Photoanodes in Photoelectrochemical Devices”) in 2001 at the University of Geneva and her Master’s degree (“Electropolymerization and Photopolymerization of a Pyrrole-Substituted Ruthenium tris (bipyridyl ) Complex “) in Chemistry in 1995 from the Università degli Studi di Bologna. The experimental work was carried out in collaboration with the University J. Fourier. She was researcher (permanent) at the Institute of Nanostructured Materials, part of the Italian National Research Council, from 2001 to 2011, and visiting researcher (2007-2010) at Cornell University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering (Maliaras Laboratory for Organic Electronics). In 2006, she was a visiting scientist with a joint assignment between the National Institute for Scientific Research and McGill University (chemistry), and in 2005, at Purdue University (chemistry).
telephone: 819-821-8000 ext. 62053
email: david.senechal (@) usherbrooke.ca
Field of research :
Solid state theory, strongly correlated electrons.
In particular: development of numerical methods of the ‘quantum cluster’ type and application of these methods to the study of strongly correlated electron models. The phenomena studied include superconductivity, different magnetic orders and topological insulators.
Originally from Nova Scotia, Paul studied at St Francis Xavier University and the University of Western Ontario before conducting research in Japan and California before joining McGill in 2001. He currently divides his time between Montreal, his family home in Chicago and the hockey rink. His students have never seen him work, but they are told emphatically that it is a quantum process and that it happens when they are not looking.
Dr. Zhao is currently an Assistant Professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at McGill University. He has a doctorate. graduated in Electrical Engineering (McGill) and Solid State Physics (Zhejiang University), his undergraduate studies were at Chu-Kochen Honors College, Zhejiang University. He is the recipient of the McGill Peter Silvester Research Award, the MBE Young Investigator Award, the National Research Council Research Fellowship and several MBE Outstanding Paper Awards. His recent research interests include molecular beam epitaxy of III nitride nanostructures, photonics/nanophotonics, clean energy and quantum technologies. He has published over 70 articles in peer-reviewed journals and 60 peer-reviewed articles/conferences.
I am a condensed matter theorist working on strongly correlated quantum systems, with an emphasis on disorder and interaction driven physics, and non-equilibrium dynamics. I am also interested in quantum control and quantum information related problems. When possible, I find it very rewarding to collaborate with experimentalists; in the recent past, I have worked on a wide range of problems including uncovering the properties of topological defects in quantum Hall ferromagnets in Bismuth, phononic Cherenkov radiation in graphene, and understanding the phase dynamics of Bose gases on atom chips.
Local Science Complex B-4423
Web: Other website
2013, Physics, University of Lorraine (France)
Department of Chemical
Engineering McGill University
Building 3610 University Street
Montreal (Quebec) H3A 0C5
I am currently an assistant professor at the University of Montreal, Department of Chemistry. My primary motivation is to discover and implement the chemistry needed to transition to a sustainable energy-based society. Specifically, I develop materials to convert solar energy into chemical fuels as a means of energy storage. Transforming solar energy into chemical bonds requires efficient and synchronous operation of several processes as well as a fundamental understanding of the underlying chemistry at work. Currently, catalysts that use solar-generated electricity to generate chemical fuels lack the performance needed to make this technology practical. In this context, my research focuses both on the design of new electrocatalytic materials and on in situ spectroscopic investigations. The goal here is to establish an iterative cycle where new materials are first synthesized and systematically tested, then probed by spectroscopic methods to develop a comprehensive understanding of the structure/function relationships of materials. The lessons generated can then feed into the next cycle of design, synthesis and understanding to accelerate the rate at which pressing energy and materials challenges can be addressed. then probed by spectroscopic methods to develop a comprehensive understanding of the structure/function relationships of materials. The lessons generated can then feed into the next cycle of design, synthesis and understanding to accelerate the rate at which pressing energy and materials challenges can be addressed. then probed by spectroscopic methods to develop a comprehensive understanding of the structure/function relationships of materials. The lessons generated can then feed into the next cycle of design, synthesis and understanding to accelerate the rate at which pressing energy and materials challenges can be addressed.
Audrey Laventure is an assistant professor in the Department of Chemistry at the Université de Montréal and holds the Canada Research Chair in Functional Polymer Materials. His expertise lies at the intersection of physical chemistry and materials chemistry. She completed her postdoctoral fellowship as an NSERC scholar at the University of Calgary and her doctorate as an NSERC Vanier scholar at the University of Montreal, whose excellence was recognized by the Governor’s Gold Medal General of Canada, as well as the Prize for the best thesis of the Faculty of Graduate and Postdoctoral Studies. Rewarded for her excellence in teaching (André Beauchamp prize), throughout her university career, she has demonstrated a keen interest in new teaching and learning methods. Committed, Audrey is regularly involved in science popularization and mentoring activities. She was also the first Innovation Postdoctoral Fellow of the Faculty of Science at the University of Calgary – an award highlighting her involvement in the world of technology transfer, both at the doctoral level (Technopreneur program of the Poly-UdeM Entrepreneurship Center) and at the internship. postdoctoral (Energy Innovator program of Innovate Calgary).
Stephan Reuter is Associate Professor of Plasma Physics and Spectroscopy in the Department of Engineering Physics at Polytechnique Montréal and holder of the TransMedTech Chair for Plasma Medicine. He is a former student of the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation.
From 2017 to 2018 he was Feodor-Lynen Fellow at Princeton University. He established the “plasmatis” physics research group for plasma medicine at the Leibniz Institute for Plasma Science and Technology INP Greifswald, Germany. He has been a visiting professor at the University of Paris-Sud/Paris-Saclay and the Technical University of Lublin, Poland, and was a research fellow at the Plasma Physics Center at Queen’s University Belfast, UK. -United.
His research focuses on the interaction of non-thermal plasmas with liquids and diagnostic methods such as ultrafast laser spectroscopy, spectral imaging and one-shot techniques. The fields of application studied are plasmas for medicine, the environment and the synthesis of materials.
Welcome ! I study the quantum properties of condensed matter systems at the nanoscale and how to use these systems for quantum information processing. I’m an associate professor of physics at McGill. I am a member of the McGill Center for Materials Physics and of two Strategic Groups: INTRIQ and RQMP. I am currently actively recruiting motivated graduate students. If you are interested, please contact me!
Professor Michael R. Wertheimer is a graduate of the University of Toronto (BASc in engineering physics, 1962; MA in physics, 1963) and holds a Ph.D. from the Joseph-Fourier University of Grenoble (1967) in superconductivity .
Currently professor emeritus (since 2005) in engineering physics and biomedical engineering, he held an NSERC Industrial Research Chair in “plasma processes for the treatment of materials” in the department of engineering physics (1996-2006). He has been a professor at Poly since 1973, after having spent more than six years in industrial research at Air Liquide (Canada) Ltée. to Montreal.
Dr. Wertheimer is a Fellow of the Canadian Academy of Engineering (FCAE), of the IEEE (FIEEE) and of the “International Plasma Chemistry Society” (FIPCS), from which he received the “Plasma Chemistry Award” (in 2013) ; he was a Killam Scholar (1990-1992). He is co-editor-in-chief of the journal Plasma Processes and Polymers and author or co-author of around 450 articles, about twenty patents and he has edited or co-edited five books.
Our research program is focused on modeling nano to meso scale systems in which molecular disorder is not a disturbance but the whole story. We combine traditional simulation techniques with machine learning to achieve the necessary range and accuracy and collaborate with experimental groups on prediction and interpretation of observations.
Our goal is to discover new properties and new applications in nanotechnology and biotechnology for the challenging but enormous class of disordered materials ranging from amorphous graphene to synthetic biological sequences (ssDNA, peptides).
Faculty of Arts and Sciences – Department of Physics
Local Science Complex B-4447
BSc Physics (2009) – University of Montreal
PhD Engineering Physics (2016) – Polytechnique Montréal
Post-doctorate (2016-2020) – CNRS / Paris-Saclay University